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Trafficking is defined as:
‘The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal or organs’.
Human trafficking is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights.
The definition of human trafficking includes three elements;
Note: If the victim is a child, it is considered trafficking even if there is no threat or use of force.
Human trafficking includes:
The main differences between smuggling and trafficking are that migrants usually consent to being smuggled.
Traffickers generate money from the continued exploitation of their victims (smugglers only generate money from the movement and illegal entry, there is no further transaction).
Smuggling must involve illegally crossing a border. Trafficking does not have to involve crossing a border as it can also happen within a country (also known as internal trafficking).
Waltham Forest Solace Women’s Aid: 07340 683382
Ashiana Network (South Asian, Turkish and Iranian women): 020 8539 0427
Haven the Survivors of Abuse Network (historic and current sexual abuse): 020 8520 0755
Kiran Project (women and children from BAMER communities): 020 8558 1986
Stay Safe East (Disabled people service): 020 8519 7241 text phone 07587 134 122
The National Referral Mechanism
The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) is a framework for identifying victims of human trafficking and ensuring they receive the appropriate protection and support.
Under the NRM if a professional believes that they have identified a victim of trafficking then they can refer that person to a Competent Authority (CA) to have their case assessed. If the Competent Authority recognises that a woman is a victim of trafficking she is given rights that include accommodation and support.
Who can refer?
Referrals can be made to the NRM by ‘First responders’ who should refer possible victims of trafficking to the Competent Authority who are based in UK Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC).
The following agencies are first responders:
The first responder will complete a referral form to pass the case to the CA. Referral to a CA is voluntary and can happen only if the potential victim gives their permission by signing the downloadable referral form.
If you are in immediate risk call 999 or 111 (from a mobile) for the Police
Modern Slavery helpline
Telephone: 0800 0121 700
UK Human Trafficking Centre
Telephone: 0114 252 3891
A 24 hour confidential helpline for people who may be victims of trafficking and for anyone concerned about people they think may be victims of trafficking.
Tel: 0300 303 8151 (24/7 referral line)